Puy de Dome - Volcano in Chaine des Puys
Puy de Dome - Chaîne des Puys
Puy de Dome is a dormant volcano part of the Chaîne des Puys in the Massif Central.
La Chaîne des Puys is a range of 80 ancient volcanoes aligned over 40km on a north-south axis.
Their rounded summits are locally known as Puys, hence the name!
The highest volcano in La Chaîne des Puys is the Puy de Dome, which peaks at 1.465m.
This ancient volcano is located 15km from the city of Clermont-Ferrand the capital of Auvergne.
It has also become the iconic image of the department, to which it gave its name in 1791.
Its western side strteches in the municipality of Ceyssat, its eastern side and summit in the municipality of Orcines.
On a clear day, the Puy de Dome's summit boasts spectacular views over the Parc Naturel Régional des Volcans d'Auvergne.
These include the whole range of Chaîne des Puys, Monts Dore and Monts du Cantal, the Limousin, Les Combrailles and Plateau de Millevaches in Cantal to the west.
The eastern side overlooks Clermont-Ferrand and Monts du Forez in the distance.
The summit of Mont Blanc, the highest mountain in the Alps, is sometimes visible in the far east on a very clear day!
Puy de Dome was granted the label 'Grand Site de France' in 2008 .
Chemin des Muletiers
There are only two ways to get to the summit of the Puy de Dome!
You can walk up via the Chemin des Chèvres (Goats’ path) or the Chemin des Muletiers (Mules’path) via the Col de Ceyssat, which peaks at 1078m.
The 350m long ascent via Chemin des Muletiers takes about 50mn.
However, once at the summit you are rewarded with magnificent views over the Chain des Puys.
If walking is not your thing, you can then opt for a 15mn ride on the Panoramique des Dômes.
The ride starts at the foot of the Puy de Dome and follows the old road.
This cogwheel train has been operating since 2012.
The 89m high television relay antenna was built on the top of the Puy de Dome in 1957.
It is located next to the Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers and is visible for miles around.
The observatory was built in 1986.
It depends from the Blaise Pascal University in Clermont-Ferrand, and is equipped with a micro-physical and chemical advanced instrumentation.
Its purpose is to investigate the role of clouds and their composition in climate change and global warming.
It replaces the first meteorological observatory founded by Emile Alluard that was inaugurated on August 22, 1876.
Temple of Mercury
The Romans undoubtedly thought that the Puy de Dome's height and location were exceptional.
In the 2nd century AD they indeed erected a gigantic temple dedicated to their god Mercury on the summit.
The construction work of the observatory uncovered the foundations of this temple.
Not only was the Temple of Mercury exceptionally large, but its enclosure also stretched over 3600m2.
It faced east and was therefore visible from every district of the ancient city of Augustonemetum (Clermont-Ferrand).
It was certainly one of the most important pilgrimage sanctuaries of the Roman Western Empire.
Its architecture, a successful blend of Gallo-Roman and Greek styles, was adapted to the declivity of the volcano.
Archaeological excavations show that the Roman stonemasons built it with the local volcanic rock.
They then lined the walls with marble and roofed the building with lead plates fixed on a wooden frame.
However, excavations also uncovered the foundations of a smaller temple built during the 1st century AD on the northern side of the Temple of Mercury.
This first temple was pulled down and its stones reused in order built the second temple.
Some believe that this statue once stood by the Temple of Mercury on the summit of the Puy de Dome.
That would be logical, however, no proof has even been found!
Temple of Mercury, a ancient pilgrimage site
Pilgrims walked up to the Temple of Mercury along the Chemin des Muletiers.
Countless annex religious buildings stood along the Chemin des Muletiers.
Excavations conducted between 1999 and 2003 indeed uncovered many vestiges.
Among them were those of a small agglomeration that developed between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD at Col de Ceyssat.
The Col de Ceyssat peaks at 1078m and was the highest point of the Via Agrippa.
The small agglomeration was a sort of stopover village for pilgrims.
It was in fact the last stop before reaching the Temple of Mercury, where they worshiped their god.
Department of Puy de Dome
Coordinates Puy de Dome: Lat 45.772466 - Long 2.964578
Credits: Source article Jean Piludu - Edited and translated by and for Travel France Online - Photos via Wikimedia Commons: header - Temple de Mercure vestiges - Aerial view